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Insecticide Classification Guide

Rotate Insecticides to Control Resistant Insects Effectively

Rotate insecticides with different modes of action. Use chart below to identify the modes of action of commonly used insecticides.

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Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

1A CarbamatesAlanycarb, Aldicarb, Bendiocarb, Benfuracarb, Butocarboxim, Butoxycarboxim, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Carbosulfan, Ethiofencarb, Fenobucarb, Formetanate, Furathiocarb, Isoprocarb, Methiocarb, Methomyl, Metolcarb, Oxamyl, Pirimicarb, Propoxur, Thiodicarb, Thiofanox, Triazamate,Trimethacarb, XMC, Xylylcarb
1B OrganophosphatesAcephate, Azamethiphos, Azinphosethyl, Azinphos-methyl, Cadusafos, Chlorethoxyfos, Chlorfenvinphos, Chlormephos, Chlorpyrifos, Chlorpyrifosmethyl, Coumaphos, Cyanophos, Demeton-S-methyl, Diazinon, Dichlorvos/ DDVP, Dicrotophos, Dimethoate, Dimethylvinphos, Disulfoton, EPN, Ethion, Ethoprophos, Famphur, Fenamiphos, Fenitrothion, Fenthion, Fosthiazate, Heptenophos, Imicyafos, Isofenphos, Isopropyl O- (methoxyaminothiophosphoryl) salicylate, Isoxathion, Malathion, Mecarbam, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Mevinphos, Monocrotophos, Naled, Omethoate, Oxydemetonmethyl, Parathion, Parathion-methyl, Phenthoate, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosmet, Phosphamidon, Phoxim, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Propetamphos, Prothiofos, Pyraclofos, Pyridaphenthion, Quinalphos, Sulfotep, Tebupirimfos, Temephos, Terbufos, Tetrachlorvinphos, Thiometon, Triazophos, Trichlorfon, Vamidothion
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

2A Cyclodiene organochlorinesChlordane, Endosulfan
2B Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles)Ethiprole, Fipronil
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at this protein is responsible
for insecticidal effects}

3A Pyrethroids PyrethrinsAcrinathrin, Allethrin, d-cis-trans Allethrin, d-trans Allethrin, Bifenthrin, Bioallethrin, Bioallethrin-S-cyclopentenyl isomer, Bioresmethrin, Cycloprothrin, Cyfluthrin, beta-Cyfluthrin, Cyhalothrin, lambda-Cyhalothrin, gamma-Cyhalothrin, Cypermethrin, alpha-Cypermethrin, beta-Cypermethrin, theta-cypermethrin, zeta-Cypermethrin, Cyphenothrin, (1R)- trans- isomers], Deltamethrin, Empenthrin (EZ)- (1R)- isomers],Esfenvalerate, Etofenprox, Fenpropathrin, Fenvalerate, Flucythrinate, Flumethrin, tau-Fluvalinate, Halfenprox, Imiprothrin, Kadethrin, Permethrin, Phenothrin [(1R)-transisomer], Prallethrin, Pyrethrins (pyrethrum), Resmethrin, Silafluofen, Tefluthrin, Tetramethrin, Tetramethrin [(1R)-isomers], Tralomethrin, Transfluthrin,
3B DDT MethoxychlorDDT Methoxychlor
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein isresponsible for
insecticidal effects}

4A NeonicotinoidsAcetamiprid, Clothianidin, Dinotefuran, Imidacloprid, Nitenpyram, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam,
4B NicotineNicotine
4C SulfoxaflorSulfoxaflor
4D ButenolidesFlupyradifurone
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein is responsible for
insecticidal effects}

SpinosynsSpinetoram, Spinosad
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve and muscle action

{Strong evidence that action
at one or more of this class
of protein is responsible for
insecticidal effects}

Avermectins, MilbemycinsAbamectin, Emamectin benzoate, Lepimectin, Milbemectin
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

7A Juvenile hormone analoguesHydroprene, Kinoprene, Methoprene
7B FenoxycarbFenoxycarb
7C PyriproxyfenPyriproxyfen
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
8A Alkyl halidesMethyl bromide and other alkyl halides
8B ChloropicrinChloropicrin
8C Sulfuryl fluorideSulfuryl fluoride
8D BoratesBorax
8E Tartar emeticTartar emetic
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

9B PymetrozinePymetrozine
9C FlonicamidFlonicamid
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible
for biological activity is
unknown, or uncharacterized}

10A* Clofentezine Hexythiazox DiflovidazinClofentezine, Hexythiazox, Diflovidazin
10B EtoxazoleEtoxazole
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

(includes transgenic crops
expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins, however specific guidance for resistance management of
transgenic crops is not based on rotation of modes of action)

11A Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis

B.t. crop proteins: (*Please see footnote) Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab, Vip3A, mCry3A, Cry3Ab, Cry3Bb, Cry34Ab1/ Cry35Ab

11B Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus sphaericus
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Compounds affect the function of this protein, but it is not clear that this is what leads to biological activity}

12A DiafenthiuronDiafenthiuron
12B Organotin miticidesAzocyclotin, Cyhexatin, Fenbutatin oxide
12C PropargitePropargite
12D TetradifonTetradifon
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism ChlorfenapyrChlorfenapyr
DNOCsDNOC
SulfluramidSulfluramid
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Compounds affect the function of this protein, but it is not clear that this is what leads to biological activity}

Nereistoxin analoguesBensultap, Cartap hydrochloride, Thiocyclam, Thiosultap-sodium
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

BenzoylureasBistrifluron, Chlorfluazuron, Diflubenzuron, Flucycloxuron, Flufenoxuron, Hexaflumuron, Lufenuron, Novaluron, Noviflumuron, Teflubenzuron, Triflumuron
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

BuprofezinBuprofezin
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown, or uncharacterized}

CyromazineCyromazine
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Growth regulation

{Strong evidence that action at this protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

DiacylhydrazinesChromafenozide, Halofenozide, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Good evidence that action at one or more of this class of protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

AmitrazAmitraz
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

20A HydramethylnonHydramethylnon
20B AcequinocylFenoxycarb
20C FenoxycarbFenoxycarb
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

21A METI acaricides and insecticidesFenazaquin, Fenpyroximate, Pyrimidifen, Pyridaben, Tebufenpyrad, Tolfenpyrad
21B RotenoneRotenone (Derris)
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

22A IndoxacarbIndoxacarb
22B MetaflumizoneMetaflumizone
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Lipid synthesis, growth regulation

{Good evidence that action at this protein is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivativesSpirodiclofen, Spiromesifen, Spirotetramat
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

24A PhosphineAluminium phosphide, Calcium phosphide, Phosphine, Zinc phosphide
24B CyanideCyanide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Energy metabolism

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

Beta-ketonitrile derivativesCyenopyrafen, Cyflumetofen
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve and muscle action

{Good evidence that action at this protein complex is responsible for insecticidal effects}

DiamidesChlorantraniliprole, Cyantraniliprole, Flubendiamide
Main Group and Primary
Site of Action
Chemical Sub-group
or exemplifying
Active Ingredient
Active Ingredients
Nerve action

{Target protein responsible for biological activity is unknown,

4A NeonicotinoidsAcetamiprid, Clothianidin, Dinotefuran, Imidacloprid, Nitenpyram, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam,
AzadirachtinAzadirachtin
BenzoximateBenzoximate
BifenazateBifenazate
BromopropylateBromopropylate
ChinomethionatChinomethionat
CryoliteCryolite
DicofolDicofol
PyridalylPyridalyl
PyrifluquinazonPyrifluquinazon

Table Notes:

a) Inclusion of a compound in the classification above does not necessarily signify regulatory approval.
b) MoA assignments will usually involve identification of the target protein responsible for the biological effect, although groupings can be made where compounds share distinctive physiological effects and have related chemical structures.
c) Groups 26 and 27 are unassigned at this time and have therefore been omitted from the table.
d) A compound with an unknown or controversial MoA or an unknown mode of toxicity will be held in group ‘UN’ until evidence becomes available to enable that compound to be assigned to a more appropriate MoA class.
e) Actives in groups marked with a * are thought not to share a common target site and therefore may be freely rotated with each other unless there is reason to expect cross-resistance. These groups are 8, 13, and UN.

Source:

IRAC MoA Classification Scheme v. 7.3, February 2014, with permission. Further information is available from www.irac-online.org.
IRAC is a specialist technical committee providing best resistance management practice and does not endorse the use of specific products.